Sysmex

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Glossary

A

■Advisory board
A committee formed of top-level individuals from medical facilities across the country or around the world, to provide advice from a wide range of perspectives.

B

■Blood smear sample
Prepared for microscopy of blood cell morphology by placing a drop of blood on a glass slide, and then drying and staining it.
■Blood coagulation testing
Tests run on plasma from which red blood cells have been removed. They are used to investigate a diagnosis of hemophilia and to check on susceptibility to hemorrhage, tendency to thrombosis, and the state of liver function.

C

■Cervical cancer
The second most common form of gynecological cancer, with around 50,000 cases diagnosed each year. However, if it is discovered early a higher proportion of patients can be successfully treated than with other cancers.
■Clinical testing
Tests carried out by a hospital during routine examinations or when a person is sick, to obtain data on physical health. Clinical tests are divided into laboratory tests, carried out on specimens such as blood, urine, or cells, and tests such as X-rays, ECGs and EEGs that are performed directly on the body itself.
■Clinical trial
Unlike a therapeutic trial for the purpose of gaining approval to manufacture or market a drug, clinical trials in this sense use laboratory tests on blood or tissue samples from a patient to evaluate the performance of the testing method.
■Confirmed diagnosis
General confirmation by a physician of the nature and degree of a suspected disease via examination, medical history, and the results of clinical tests.
■Core business
The mainstay of a company's business activities and the main source of its earnings. The core business of Sysmex is providing customers with total solutions for their problems by combining laboratory-testing devices and reagents with IT, services and solutions.
■Customer support center
A Center staffed with specialists who respond to telephone inquiries from Sysmex customers regarding technical issues or repairs, backed by a database that houses a wealth of technical information.

D

■Devices and reagents (accounting category)
An accounting category. "Devices" refers to testing equipment and related devices that Sysmex provides to its customers. "Reagents" refers to the reagents used in testing equipment.
■Diagnosis procedure combination (DPC)
System for paying medical bills consisting of set fees determined by individual hospitals. In the past, medical bills were payable on a per-visit basis, so they increased with the number of visits. Under the DPC system, medical costs are more effectively controlled.
■Disease management
The concept of providing healthcare services, optimized for individual patients, aimed at preventing the onset, recurrence, and deterioration of diseases.
■DNA chips (gene chips)
An analytical tool for measuring gene expression at a cellular level, whereby a large number of DNA fragments are densely arranged on a plastic or glass substrate.

E

■E-Cell
A world-renowned cell-simulation program, developed by the Katsu Tomita Research Center at Keio University. By programming a substance's reaction formulae into E-Cell, it is possible to represent on a computer, numerically or graphically, the status of activity in cells and organs, such as self-supporting cells (artificial cells), red blood cells, mitochondria, intestinal bacteria and myocardial cells, as well as changes in the quantity of metabolites.
■Establishment of usefulness
Evaluation of new testing methods in terms of whether they improve efficiency and accuracy.
■Evidence- based medicine (EBM)
A new concept in medicine that aims to base treatment on evidence as opposed to previous experience.

F

G

■Genome
The minimum amount of genetic information common to all members of a species. Genes form the blueprint for an organism's makeup; a genome is the set of genes that carries the minimum amount of information necessary to construct a single organism.
■Global niche
To be No. 1 in certain specialized global markets, or to have the strength to aim for No. 1. This is one of our basic strategies at Sysmex.
■Glycosylated hemoglobin
A widely used test item for the diagnosis and screening of diabetes and controlling blood sugar. This item reflects average blood-sugar levels over the past one or two months.
■Group purchasing organization (GPO)
In the USA, an organization for collective purchasing of medical supplies and drugs.

H

■Healthcare testing (business sector)
Generic term for all testing in a healthcare context, including testing in hospital laboratories, POC testing, home testing, and preventative testing.
■Hematological testing
Measuring the number, type and size of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, as well as hemoglobin concentration, these tests are diagnostic for anemia and erythrocytosis. White blood cell count is used to check for leukemia or type of inflammation, while platelet count is used to investigate hemostatic function.
■Hospital/primary care coordination
A framework whereby hospitals and primary care physicians divide up their roles and responsibilities so as to offer patients more appropriate and efficient medical care according to their conditions.

I

■Immune serum testing
Tests that check for the hepatitis virus or the appearance of specific proteins indicating the presence of cancer.
■Infection
A disease caused by organisms that invade a living body through the mouth, skin or other transmission route and either propagate or generate toxins within the body. (This is a wider definition than "infectious disease".)
■Insurance points
Units of payment from medical insurance organizations to medical facilities for medical services, such as sample testing fees.
■Integrated healthcare network (IHN)
In the USA, a business organization providing comprehensive healthcare. Composed of a number of hospitals, these organizations offer medical services over a wide area with the purpose of providing necessary medical care to the local community.
■ISO 15189
Specialized quality management standard for lab tests.
■ISO, including 9001, 14001 and 15189
ISO is the International Organization for Standardization. The ISO body of standards was created to establish international standards in place of conflicting industrial standards in each country, to promote the smooth development of international commerce. In recent years, medical institutions have been focusing on ISO certification as an international indication of high-quality service.

J

K

■Kobe Medical Industry City Concept
The Kobe Medical Industry City Concept aims to develop a base for research and development of leading-edge medical technology in Phase 2 of Kobe City's Port Island redevelopment project. The intention is to create a concentration of medical-related industries with the collaboration of industry, the government, and academia.

L

■Laboratory information system (LIS)
Generic term for a system used for general handling of test information by hospitals and other medical institutions. The system supports the flow of test information, from reception through to reporting results and data management.
■Laboratory testing (diagnostics)
Tests that examine samples taken from the body, such as blood, urine, or cells. In the diagnostics field Sysmex is a comprehensive manufacturer of devices, reagents, and related software used for testing specimens such as blood, immune serum, and urine. The company's activities stretch from research and development through to manufacturing, sales, service and support.
■Location segment and region (accounting category)
An accounting category, used in breakdown of net sales. "Net sales by location segment" divides net sales between net sales inside and net sales outside of a given region. "Net sales by region" refers to sales within each region.
■Lymph node metastasis
One way in which cancer spreads. Cancer cells that propagate in a given organ enter the lymphatic system and are carried via the lymph ducts to nearby lymph nodes. As this process is repeated, the cancer invades new organs and begins to propagate there. When this occurs, remission can only be prevented by removing (dissecting) not only the cancer itself but the affected lymph nodes as well.

M

■Minimally invasive blood glucose self-monitoring technology
Technology for measuring glucose levels in samples of interstitial fluid rather than blood. This method enables measurement with virtually no pain or difficulty for the patient.
■Molecular diagnosis
Molecular diagnosis is a diagnostic method that relies on the detection of molecules that cause a disease or determine its characteristics. In a broad sense, it's also includes diagnosis by using molecules of unknown function selected by a DNA chip. It is expected that in future this sort of molecular diagnosis will enable the selecion of anticancer agents and other therapies on the basis of drug sensitivity diagnosis, as a form of evidence-based medicine(EBM).
■Monoclonal antibody
Antibodies are substances that play a central role in the immune response that protects the human body from disease when it is invaded by foreign organisms such as viruses and bacteria. Monoclonal antibodies are artificially produced antibodies that are identical clones generated from an original cell called a hybridoma. They are widely used in medicine and food hygiene, to diagnose cancer and detect disease bacteria and food poisoning.
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